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Dictionary of Vexillology: P (Peace Flag - Phrygian Cap)

Last modified: 2014-12-20 by rob raeside
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PEACE FLAG
Any one of a number of flags designed to symbolize peace as, for example, those illustrated below (see also ‘rainbow flag’).

[Peace flag] [Peace flag] [Peace flag] [Peace flag]
From left: Two variants of the Rainbow Flag; Variant of the Dove of Peace Flag; Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament (fotw)


PEAK
1) The highest point of the gaff to which the ensign of a warship is shifted (moved), when it is said to be flying at the peak or at the peak of the gaff – see ‘shift colours’ (also 'ensign' and 'gaff').
2) A colloquial synonym (although technically incorrect) for the top of a normal flagpole (see ‘truck 1)’ and ‘finial’).

Notes
a)
With regard to 1), that the practice of shifting the ensign became necessary in the sailing era due to the introduction of a lower spar to the mizzen gaff sail, whilst in modern warships the ensign is shifted from an ensign staff to the peak of the gaff for reasons of tradition or operational requirement (see also ‘ensign staff’).
b) Also with regard to 1), that (whilst underway) sailing ships - whether civilian or naval - still have the option of flying their ensigns from the peak of the gaff if fitted, or from two-thirds the way up the leech of the mainsail if Bermuda rigged (see also ‘leech’), however, the ensign should always be returned to a staff at the stern when the vessel is at anchor or berthed alongside.

ensign from the peak ensign from the leech
Ensign At The Peak; Ensign Flown At The Leach


PENCEL (or PENCIL)
1) A term, now obsolete, for a narrow ribbon attached below the head of a lance or spear (see see also ‘banderole 2)’, ‘banderole 3)’ and ‘lance pennon 1)’).
2) See ‘pennoncel’.

PENDANT
A largely (but not entirely) obsolete spelling of pennant - see pennant 2).

pendant
Red Commissioning Pendant, England then UK c1630 1864 (CS)

Please note, however, that this dictionary uses the older term first when referring to obsolete designs or patterns of this type - see budgee pendant, common pendant, man o'war pendant, pendant coupe, pendant number and pendant of distinction.


PENDANT COUPE
In British RN usage now obsolete, an alternative term for what later became known as the code or answering pennant see code pennant (also pendant).

pendant coupe
Pendant Coupee/Answering Pendant c1920 (fotw)


PENDANT (or PENNANT) NUMBER
The term was originally used for the group of signal flags/pennants unique to an individual naval vessel, and raised to indicate that any subsequent signal hoist was sent from or was intended for that vessel and for no others, it is now – as a pennant, registration or hull number - a combination of letters and numbers that identify a particular vessel within the naval structure (see also ‘call sign hoist’, ‘make her number’, ‘private signal 3)’ and ‘signal flag’).

PENDANT (or PENNANT) OF DISTINCTION
The original 17th/18th Century English/British naval term, now obsolete, for a commodore’s broad pennant (see also ‘broad pennant’, ‘budgee pendant’ and ‘pendant’).

pennant of distinction
Pendant of Distinction/Broad Pendant 1674 1864, England then UK

Please note – not to be confused with the distinction pendant used in Marryat’s code – see ‘distinction pennant’.


PENDO
A medieval term, now obsolete, for a pennant or small flag.

PENNANT
1) A general (and imprecise) term for flags which are not strictly rectangular.
2) A flag which will usually narrow in width between the hoist and the fly, and which may be triangular, square-ended or swallow-tailed (see also flag 2), ‘swallow-tail(ed)’ and ‘trapezoid’). See supplemental note and the notes below.

pennant pennant pennant

Notes
a)
With regard to 2), the following modern flags can fall into this category: broad pennant, burgee, pincel, club pennant, command pennant, guidon, lance flag, masthead pennant and others, as do obsolete (or increasingly obsolete) forms such as cornet, pavon, pennon and pensel, and it is strongly suggested that the more precise terms (as defined separately herein) are to be preferred in description.
b) One common denominator, which distinguishes a pennant from a flag (as defined in flag 2) as referenced above), is that the former is usually secondary to the latter, and differs from it in shape, size and/or in the manner of display.


PENNANT OF COMMAND
See ‘masthead pennant 1)’.

pennant of command
Pennant of Command/Kommandowimpel of Germany (Wikipedia)

Please note that this term is a translation of the German kommadowimpel, and should not be confused with a command pennant as separately defined herein.


PENNON
1) See ‘fanion 2)’.
2) See ‘lance pennon 1) and badge pennon.
3) In official Scottish usage, a 120 cm long pennant that is either triangular in form or has a rounded point, and which may be granted by Lord Lyon King of Arms to any armigerous person who applies – but see ‘guidon 3)’ (also ‘armigerous’, badge pennon and ‘pinsel’).
4) At sea, an increasingly obsolete term for a small pennant.

PENNONE
An obsolete spelling of pennon – see ‘lance pennon 1)’.

PENNONCEL (PENNONCELLE, PENICELLUS or PENNUNCELLUS)
1) Generically the term, now obsolete, for any small flag (usually) carried on a lance – a pencel but see badge pennon and 2) below (also 'badge in heraldry', 'livery colours', and ‘lance pennon 1)’).

2) Specifically the term, now obsolete, for an armigerous swallow-tailed lance pennon see pennoncier.
PENNONCIER
The medieval term, now obsolete, for a knight who bore an armigerous, swallow-tailed pennon on his lance and was, therefore, below the rank of banneret – a knight bachelor see pennoncel 2) (also armigerous, badge pennon, banneret 2)’ and ‘lance pennon 1)’.

Lance pennon
Lance Pennon of a Pennoncier (or Knight Bachelor), England 1415


PENSIL
See ‘pinsel’.

pinsil
Pensil/Pinsel of the Clan Fraser (Fraserchief)


PENTAGRAM
A hollow five-sided (star-like) figure - but see Magen David and its following note.

pentagram
Flag of Giebenach, Switzerland (fotw)


PER BEND
1) In heraldry the term used when a shield, a banner of arms or any quartering thereof is divided diagonally from top left to bottom right across its field (see also banner of arms, ‘bend’, ‘in bend’, ‘party’ and ‘quartering 1)’).
2) In vexillology the term is sometimes used in place of in bend or bendwise when an object, charge or charges are placed as above (see also ‘armigerous’, ‘descending diagonal 2)’, ‘bicolour 1)’ and ‘crown of rue’).

House Flag of Bos & Kalis House Flag of Bos & Kalis House Flag of Bos & Kalis
House Flag of BosKalis NV, The Netherlands (fotw); National Arms of Bosnia-Herzegovina (fotw); Flag of Thurgau, Switzerland (fotw)


PER BEND SINISTER
1) In heraldry the term used when a shield, a banner of arms or any quartering thereof is divided diagonally from bottom left to top right across its field (see also banner of arms, ‘bend sinister’, ’in bend sinister’, ‘party’ and ‘quartering 1)’).
2) In vexillology the term is sometimes used in place of in bend sinister or bendwise sinister when an object, charge or charges are placed as above - but see ‘ascending diagonal 2)’ (also ‘bicolour 1)’).

Anarcho-feminists, Germany Nehodív, Czech Republic Nehodív, Czech Republic
Flag of the Anarcho-Feminists, Germany (fotw); Arms and Flag of Nehodív, Czech Republic (fotw)


PER CHEVRON
The heraldic term used when the divisions on a shield or banner of arms, or a series of charges thereon, appear to form a triangle, sometimes embowed and generally (although not invariably) with the apex upward – but see ‘pile 1)’ and ‘pile 2)’ plus the following note (also banner of arms, ‘chapé’, ‘chevron 2)’, ‘embowed’, ‘party’ and ‘reversed 2)’).

Alberton, South Africa flag - Neu Wulmstorf, Germany Arms - Koprivnica-Krizevci, Croatia Flag - Koprivnica-Krizevci, Croatia
Flag of Alberton, South Africa (fotw); Flag of Neu Wulmstorf, Germany (fotw); Arms and Flag of Koprivnica-Krizevci, Croatia (fotw).

Please note that the difference between a shield or a banner of arms that is divided “per chevron” and one showing a “pile reversed” is not always clear, and it is suggested that the note following ‘per pile’ and a glossary or dictionary of heraldry be consulted for further details.


PER CHEVRON EMBOWED (ARCHED or ENARCHED)
See per chevron,

Seftigen, Switzerland
Flag of Seftigen, Switzerland (fotw)


PER COMPLEMENT
See ‘moon 2)’ with following note.

PER FESS
1) In heraldry the term used when a shield, a banner of arms or any quartering thereof is divided horizontally (see also banner of arms, ‘fess’, ‘in fess’, party and ‘quartering 1)’).
2) In vexillology the term is sometimes also used in place of in fess or fesswise when an object, charge or charges, appear in a horizontal position.

Medalpad, Sweden Recica ob Savinji, Croatia
Flag of Medalpad, Sweden (fotw); Arms of Recica ob Savinji, Croatia (fotw)


PER PALE
1) In heraldry the term used when a shield, a banner of arms or any quartering thereof is divided vertically (see also banner of arms, ‘in pale’, ‘pale’, ‘party’ and ‘quartering 1)’).
2) In vexillology the term is sometimes also used in place of in pale or palewise when an object, charge or charges, appear in a vertical position.

Argau, Switzerland West Flanders, Belgium
Flag of Aargau, Switzerland (fotw); Flag of West Flanders, Belgium (fotw)


PER PALL
In heraldry the term used when the division lines on a shield, banner of arms or flag are arranged in the form a pall see in pall and pall 2).

per pall per pall per pall
Flag of Fenin-Vilars-Saules, Switzerland (fotw); Flag and Arms of Olexandria, Ukraine (fotw


PER PILE
See ‘pile 2)’ and the following note.

per pile example per pile example
Flag of Stockholm lan, Sweden (fotw); Arms of Werdohl, Germany (fotw)

Please note that this term should always be used with a further description, for example, “tierced (or party) per pile reversed” or “tierced/party per pile reversed embowed” – see ‘embowed’, ‘party’, ‘per chevron’ with its following note, ‘reversed 2)’ and ‘tiercé’.


PER SALTIRE
1) In heraldry the term used when the division lines on a shield, banner of arms or flag run in a diagonal fashion from the upper corners - saltirewise - but see note below (also banner of arms, ‘in saltire’, ‘party’, and ‘saltire’).
2) In vexillology the term is sometimes also used in place of in saltire or saltirewise when two separate objects or charges cross each other diagonally - but see note below (also ‘orthogonal’ and quartered diagonally).

Aragua, Venezuela Lubenice, Czech Republic
Flag of Aragua, Venezuela (fotw); Flag of Lubenice, Czech Republic (fotw)

Please note with that the standard vexillological term for a flag divided per saltire is “quartered diagonally” as referenced in 2) above.


PERSONAL FLAG
1) In UK usage, a fringed plain royal blue flag bearing in its centre a crowned and garlanded ‘E’, and used by HM The Queen when paying official visits abroad to those countries of which she is not head of state but see note below (also ‘garland’, ‘monogram’, ‘royal cipher 1)’ and ‘royal standard’).
2) See banner of arms.
3) A flag intended by the designer for his personal use or that of his family (see also ‘house flag 3)’).
4) In US naval usage, a term for denoting an officer's rank – see ‘flag of command’ (also ‘distinguishing flag 3)’, ‘individual flag’ and ‘rank flag 1)’).

Please note that the various flags used by HM The Queen (of Great Britain) when visiting a Commonwealth country of which she is head of state are also officially described as personal flags, but must also be considered as the royal standards of the countries concerned (see also ‘royal standard’ and ‘standard 1)’).

[a personal standard] [a personal standard] [a personal standard]
Personal Flag of HM The Queen, UK (Graham Bartram); Personal Flag/Royal Standard for use in New Zealand (Graham Bartram); Personal Flag of Terence Martin, US (fotw)


PETRA SANCTA METHOD
See ‘hatching 1)’.

petra sancta
From left: Gules, Azure, Vert. Purpure, Sable, Or and Argent


PHOENIX
A mythical bird which is generally seen rising from the flames of its own destruction, and is usually intended to symbolise re-birth through strife (see also Appendix V and heraldic beasts).

phoenix example phoenix example phoenix example phoenix example phoenix example phoenix example
Arms and Flag of Udbina, Croatia (fotw); Seal and Flag of Atlanta, Georgia USA (fotw and heraldry of the world); Emblem and Flag of Arenas del Rey, Spain (Klaus-Michael Schneider & J Erbez)


PHOINIKIS
See ‘semeion’.

PHRYGIAN CAP
See ‘cap of liberty’.

[Phrygian cap]  [Phrygian cap]
Flag and Emblem of San Juan, Argentina (fotw)


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