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Dictionary of Vexillology: C (Clad - Cognisance)

Last modified: 2014-05-10 by rob raeside
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CLAD
A term sometimes used in continental heraldry in place of its English heraldic equivalents of habited, habillι or vested – see ‘habited’ and ‘vested’).

Mόnchwilen, Switzerland Delnice, Croatia Delnice, Croatia
Flag of Mόnchwilen, Switzerland (fotw); Arms and Flag of Delnice, Croatia (fotw)


CLAN STANDARD
A term sometimes (inaccurately) used to describe the heraldic standard of a Scottish Laird or clan chief – see ‘battle standard’, ‘pageant standard’, ‘great standard’ and ‘standard 4)’ also ‘pinsel’).

Clan standard
Standard of the Laird of Clan McDonald of McDonald (The Flag Center)


CLASP
See ‘bar 3)’.

CLASS FLAG
In British RAF usage, the alternative name for a rank flag – see ‘rank flag 1)

Air Chief Marshal Air Marshall Air Vice-Marshall Air Commodore
From the left: RAF - Air Chief Marshal, Air Marshal. Air Vice-Marshall, Air Commodore (fotw)


CLAWED
See ‘armed 2’.

Bezverov, Czech Republic Bezverov, Czech Republic
Flag and Arms of Bezverov, Czech Republic (fotw)


CLEAT
A metal fitting with two arms, which is attached to the lower part of a flagpole or mast for securing the halyard (see also ‘belaying pin’, ‘flag pole’ and ‘halyard’).

cleat example
Željko Heimer


CLEW(S)
A term for the lower fly corner or both lower corners of a flag – particularly (but not exclusively) a religious/processional banner or similar – to which a line or lines are attached so as to prevent unwanted movement - particularly in windy conditions (see also ‘banner 3)’ and ‘outrigger pole’)

CLIP
See ‘Inglefield clip’

CLIP AND GROMMET
An efficient method of hoisting a flag much favoured in the US, whereby clips attached to the halyard are slipped into grommets on the flag – see ‘grommet 1)’ and ‘Inglefield clip’ (also ‘appendix I’ and ‘running eye and toggle’).

clip and grommet example
Željko Heimer


CLOSED SLEEVE
A technical term for the sleeve of a flag (usually a parade flag) which is closed at its upper end so that the staff (when inserted) does not project above the top of that flag (see also ‘sleeve 2)’, ‘staff 2)’ and ‘parade flag’).

CLOSE UP (or CLOSED UP)
(adj) The naval term for when a flag or pennant is hoisted right up to the truck (see also also ‘code pennant’, ‘dip, at the’ and ‘truck’).

CLOTHED
See ‘clad’, ‘habited’ and ‘vested’).

Bloke, Slovenia Bloke, Slovenia
Flag and Arms of Bloke, Slovenia (fotw))


CLOVEN BULLNOSE
See ‘double tailed descate’.

[cloven bullnose example]


CLOVEN DESCATE
See ‘descate’.

[cloven descate example]
Guidon of the Metropolitan Police Mounted Branch, UK (fotw)


CLOVERLEAF
See ‘trefoil’.

[cloverleaf example]
National flag of Dearsum, Netherlands


CLOVERSTEM(S) (or CLOVER STEM)
The term – and a direct translation of kleestengeln or kleestengel – for a charge largely (but not exclusively) used on heraldic birds (especially eagles in European heraldry) which may be described as a crescent-like shape (usually but not invariably) ornamented with trefoil/clover leaf elements either at one or both ends and/or in the middle, and sometimes visible only on the wings – kleestengeln or kleestengel (see also ‘crescent 2)’ and ‘trefoil’).

Prussia Arms - Brandenberg, Germany Flag - Bašť, Czech Republic Broteslavy, Czech Republic Greater Arms - Czech Republic
State Flag Prussia 1892 – 1918 (fotw); Arms of Brandenburg, Germany (fotw); Flag of Bašť, Czech Republic (fotw); Flag of Broteslavy, Czech Republic (fotw); Greater Arms of the Czech Republic (fotw)


CLUB PENNANT
A small triangular flag designed to be hung vertically usually charged with the emblem and livery colours of a sporting club – a vertical pennant (see also ‘livery colours’, ’pennant 2’ and ‘souvenir flags’).

club pennant club pennant
Pennants of the Deutscher Ruder Sport Verband, and of the Hamburger Motorboot Verband, Germany (Klaus-Michael Sneider)


CMYK
The Initials for Cyan, Yellow, Magenta and Black, being the four primary shades used in the print process to create any colour, and an abbreviation for the four-colour printing system (see also ‘cable number’, ‘British colour code’, ‘Pantone Matching System’ and ‘International Colour Code’).

COACHWHIP PENNANT
See ‘masthead pennant 2)’ and ‘whip pennant 2)’).

coachwhip pennant
Coachwhip/Masthead Pennant, Italy (fotw)


COAT
A heraldic term that refers to each individual section or quartering on a shield or banner of arms arms – see 'coat of arms 2)' (also 'banner of arms', 'impaled', 'quartering' and 'shield 2)’).

COAT OF ARMS (or COA)
1) On flags and generically, the heraldic insignia of an individual or family, or of a corporate institution such as a nation, province or municipality, or of a commercial enterprise. In general terms the coat of arms can contain all the elements that make up a full set of armorial bearings - but see 2) below (also ‘lesser arms’, ‘middle arms’ and ‘state arms 1)’ under ‘arms’).
2) In heraldry, as above but the term only refers to the shield from a full set of armorial bearings – an escutcheon (see also ‘armorial bearings’, 'banner of arms', and ‘shield’).

coat of arms coat of arms coat of arms coat of arms coat of arms

Coats of Arms of Dubrovnik-Neretva, Bakar, Koprivnica-Križevci, Osijek-Baranja and Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Croatia (fotw)

Notes
a)
A full set of armorial bearings can include (for example) shield, supporters, helmet, torse, crest, mantling, compartment, motto, collar etc., and whilst many of the terms used are illustrated in
Appendix IV and/or briefly defined herein, it is suggested that a suitable glossary or heraldic dictionary be consulted for full details.
b) The emblems of some countries such as those of Mexico or Italy – whilst conforming to the definition of that term as detailed herein – are officially described as “coats of arms” (see also ‘
emblem, national’).


COCKADE
1) A rosette or bow, generally in national or livery colours, and sometimes used to decorate a staff below the finial (see also ‘cravat 1)’, ‘finial’, ‘livery colours’ and ‘staff’).
2) A rosette or bow formerly worn by both military personnel and civilians (largely on the hat or shako) to indicate patriotic or political loyalties and still sometimes seen – the cockade was the precursor of many national flags (those of Argentina and France being two examples).
3) See ‘roundel 1)’.

cockade - Columbia cockade - Peru cockade - Peru
The National cockades of Colombia and Peru (fotw); Cockade of Cartagena State, Columbia c1812 (fotw)


CODE PENNANT
A tapered, square-ended pennant (or trapezoid) used in the International Code of Signal Flags to indicate a decimal point, but more importantly that a message has been seen by the intended recipient when hoisted at the dip, and/or that it has been received and understood when closed up – the answering pennant (see also ‘close up’, ‘dip, at the’, ‘International Code of Signal Flags’, ‘pendant coupee’ and ‘signal flag’ and ‘trapezoid 2)’).

 code pennant
Code pennant (fotw)

Please note that this pennant is also included in the NATO Code of Signals, but (as opposed to the meanings given above) is raised at the start of a signal hoist to indicate that any following message must be read using the International Code.

COG
1) 1) See ‘cog-wheel’.
2) A type of single-masted, medieval trading vessel (usually shown with fore and aft castles as equipped for war) – but see ‘lymphad’ and its following note.

[Royal Lymington Yacht Club]
Ensign of the Royal Lymington Yacht Club, UK (Graham Bartram)

Please note with regard to 2) that the terms “cog“ and “nef” both refer to a single-masted vessel and are generally considered interchangeable, however, strictly speaking the earlier cog was steered by a long oar, whereas the later nef had a stern mounted rudder.


COG-WHEEL (COG WHEEL or COGWHEEL)
A toothed wheel used in mechanical engineering to transmit power, and usually symbolic of industry or industrial workers – a toothed or gear-wheel - but see ‘waterwheel’.

[Courchapoix] [Angola] [Le Sentier]
Flag of Courchapoix, Switzerland (fotw); National Flag of Angola (fotw); Flag of Le Sentier, Switzerland (fotw)


COGNISANCE
1) In flags a medieval term, now obsolete, for a lance pennon - see ‘lance pennon 1)’.
2) In heraldry as above but the term can include everything by which an armigerous person is known (see also ‘armigerous’).

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