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Dictionary of Vexillology: C (Caravel - Ceremony of Consecration)

Last modified: 2015-02-28 by rob raeside
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CARAVEL
The term, often misapplied, for a late 15th or early 16th century sailing vessel that (usually but not invariably) carried lateen (triangular) sails on all masts - but see note below.

 Caravel example  Caravel example Caravel example
Arms of Povoação, Portugal (ICH); Portuguese Caravel c1500 (Wikipedia); Arms of Velas, Portugal (ICH)

Please note that the above term is often misused, and that a larger ship of this period equipped with fore and aft castles and square sails to its forward masts was almost certainly a “carrack”- see ‘carrack’.

Caravel example
Portuguese Carrack c1480 (Wikipedia)


CARBUNCLE
See ‘escarbuncle’.

 Carbuncle example
(Parker and CS)


CARNATION
See ‘shades of tincture’ in ‘Appendix III’.

tincture


CAR FLAG (or PENNANT)
1) Specifically a flag or pennant, sometimes in metal or other non-flexible material, designed specifically to be flown from a car – an automobile or vehicular flag.
2) Generically the term may include any flag that is flown from a motor vehicle (see also ‘fanion 2)’).

Catalonian car flag  Bavarian car flag  German car flag 1941-45
Car Flag, Regional President and Ministers, Catalonia, Spain (fotw; Car Flag, Ministers and State Secretaries, Bavaria Germany (fotw); Car Pennant, General officer, Germany 1941– 45 (fotw)

Notes
a)
With regard to 1), the practice of flying a car flag or pennant was previously (usually but not exclusively) limited to that carrying a head of state, government official or military officer. Whilst these were formerly sometimes flown from the radiator cap, a car flag is now more usually seen on the right front fender, wing/mudguard (or often on both front fenders) but there is a suggestion that the two positions might also previously have indicated differences in the rank of the occupant.
b) With regard to 2), the practice has arisen whereby such flags are available as sports flags or may also be displayed by a funeral cortege, and that the former are usually flown from a clip-on, window mounted staff, or from the radio antenna (see also ‘funeral flags’, ‘sports flag 1)’ and ‘sports flag 2)’ ).


CARRACK
A late 15th, early 16th Century sailing vessel from which the galleon was developed - but see ‘caravel’ and its following note (also ‘galleon’).

Carrack example
Spanish Carrack c1560 (Wikipedia) 


CARROCERUM (CARROCIUM or CARROCIUS)
An alternative medieval term, now obsolete, for the cart upon which the standard was placed (see also ‘altema’, ‘gajardus’ and ‘standard 6)’).

CARTEL FLAG
In obsolete UK, US and some other usage, a flag or one of a pair of flags, that mark a vessel involved in the exchange of prisoners (see also ‘flag of truce’).

Please note, an agreement between the United States and Great Britain in 1813 laid down that the cartel vessels of each country should wear their respective national ensigns at the stern, that both should wear a plain white flag at the fore whilst each should carry their opponent’s ensign at the main, and evidence suggests that this was a confirmation of contemporary (that is early-19th Century) practice (see also ‘fore’ and ‘main’).

[cartel flags]
Flags of a British Cartel Vessel Vessel during the War of 1812 (CS & fotw)


CARTOUCHE
1) In heraldry, an oval escutcheon often used (but not exclusively so) by Italian clergymen (see also ‘escutcheon’).
2) On flags as above, and a term that now covers a usually (but not invariably) oval plaque or frame, generally containing heraldic insignia, and occasionally a date or motto (see also ‘motto’ and ‘ring’).

[cartouche] [cartouche] [cartouche]
From left: Detail, Spain (CS); A Flag for Generals at Sea 1649 - 1653, England (CS); Andorra (fotw)


CASE(D)
1) A narrow sleeve-like sack, usually of some decorative, waterproof, material used in order to protect a regimental, unit, service or national colour (or occasionally a parade flag) when outdoors and furled (see also ‘colour 2)’ ‘flag case 2)’, and ‘furl(ed) and ‘parade flag 2)’).
2) (v) The act of placing the furled colour or parade flag into its case (see also ‘lodging’ and ‘uncase(d)’).
(3) (adj) The term used when that colour or parade flag has been placed into its case, and/or when it is so carried.

CASKET FLAG
See ‘pall flag’.

casket flag
(flagstuff.com)


CASTING THE COLOURS
See flag tossing’.

CATERFOIL
See ‘quatrefoil 2)’.

quatrefoil
Flag of Hottingen, Switzerland (fotw)


CAVALIER (or CAVALIER’S) CROSS
See ‘cross pattιe’ in ‘appendix VIII’.

Cavalier cross
Flag of Poltava, Ukraine (fotw)


CELTIC CROSS
The term for a cross used by the ancient Celtic church (and now by a number of neo-nazi movements) that does not usually reach the edges of a shield, canton, panel or flag, but which is displayed with a ring or annulet crossing all four arms - but see ‘sun cross’ (also ‘cross 2)’ and ‘ring 1)’).

Pan-Celtic flag Welch church Ultra-right flag of France
Stiωbhart's Pan-Celtic flag, UK (fotw); Flag of the Church in Wales (fotw); Flag of the Ultra-Nationalist Movement, France (fotw)


CENDAL
See ‘sendal’.

CENDRÉE
See ‘shades of tincture’ in ‘Appendix III’.

tincture


CENTRAL SPAN
The central line upon which signal flags are displayed when a vessel is dressed overall - see ‘dressing lines’, ‘dress ship, to 1)’ and ‘dress ship, to 4)’.

CENTRED (or CENTERED)
The term used when a charge is set in the geometric or visual centre of a flag or the panel it occupies – see ‘visual centre’ (also ‘inset’, ‘off-set towards’ and ‘off-centred’).

CENTRED (CENTERED or CENTRED/CENTERED UPRIGHT) CROSS
See ‘cross 1)’ (also ‘centred’ above).

Zwolle, NL
Flag of Zwolle, The Netherlands (fotw)


CEREMONIAL ENSIGN
An ensign flown by naval ships and over naval or military establishments on Sundays or days of national or service celebration (see also ‘Sunday ensign’ and ‘garrison flag’).

Please note that this term does not refer to flags used on parade or those made for indoor display, but to flags and ensigns that are identical with their everyday equivalents except for size and/or care of manufacture (see also ‘parade flag’ and ‘indoor flag’).


CEREMONIAL FLAG (or BANNER)
1) In largely (but not exclusively) East, Central and South European usage, a term employed to describe those national or sub-national flags that are for parade use or display on occasions of local or military significance, and which are often a gonfalon or a more elaborate form of the normal flag – a festive banner or flag (see also ‘banner 4)’, ‘gonfalon’, ‘official flag 2)’, ‘state service flag’, ‘paradeflag 1)’ and ‘sub-national flag’).
2) See ‘ceremonial standard’ below.

flag of Ecuador ceremonial banner of Ecuador flag of Malopolska, Poland ceremonial flag of Malopolska, Poland flag of Zagan, Poland ceremonial flag of Zagan, Poland
National Flag and Ceremonial Banner of Ecuador (fotw); Flag and Ceremonial Flag of Malopolska, Poland (fotw); Flag and Ceremonial Flag of Albufeira, Portugal (fotw and Portuguese Wikipedia)

Notes
a) With regard to 1), not to be confused with a “flag of ceremony” (the Spanish bandera de ceremonia) which is designed for exclusively indoor use – see ‘
indoor flag’.
b) With regard to 1), that in East and Central European usage the ceremonial flag of a community is often created as a unique flag – see ‘
unique flag’.


CEREMONIAL STANDARD
A term for the standard, or flag, flown on royal ceremonial occasions in (as far as can be discovered) Kelantan, Malaysia in place of the individual standards of any royal family member present (see also ‘royal standard 1)’, ‘royal standard 2)’ and ‘standard 1)’).

[ceremonial standard]
Ceremonial Standard of Kelantan, Malaysia (fotw)


CEREMONIAL STATE ENSIGN
A term for the ensign, possibly obsolete, flown (in place of a standard state ensign) on ceremonial state occasions by government entities at sea (see also ‘government ensign’ under ‘ensign’).

Please note that, as far as can be discovered, Johore, Malaysia is the only country which may currently still use such a flag.

[ceremonial ensign]
Ceremonial State Ensign, Johore, Malaysia (fotw)


CEREMONY OF COLOURS (or COLORS)
See ‘colours 5)’

[ceremony of colours]
Naval Ensign, South Africa (fotw)


CEREMONY OF CONSECRATION
See ‘consecration’.

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